Kairana is a historical city and a municipal board in Shamli district. Shamli was declared as a district in September 2011 and was named as prabuddh nagar by Mayawati, who was CM of UP at that time, but in July 2012 Shamli got its old name by Akhilesh Yadav who became CM of UP in 2012. Prior to that, Kairana was a tehsil of Muzaffarnagar district. Both the districts are located in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Kairana is located at 29.4°N 77.2°E. It has an average elevation of 242 metres (793 feet). It is also near of river Yamuna. This town is the birthplace of a renowned School of Indian Classical Music called Kirana Gharana.
Kairana is a permanent seat of parliament of India and legislative assembly of Uttar Pradesh. Kairana is also having 6 courts (4 Regular and 2 fast track). Kairana is also a Tehsil of district shamli and a municipal board. This Town is also having offices of all important government bodies like PWD office and guest house, LIC office, Block office, post office, police station, police circle office, two govt hospitals, Five nationalised banks etc.
Vijay Singh Pathik Rajkiya Mahavidyalaya is a Post Graduate Degree College in Kairana. The college was established in the year 1999. There is one more Degree College in Kairana “J.P Degree College of Commerce”. This town also has four Intermediate Colleges which provide education up to senior secondary level and there are more than 20 schools for primary education. An Engineering & Management Institute is situated on Kairana-Shamli Road.
Kairana is also known for Musical education. “Kirana Gharana” is world famous for its “Khayal” singing. Ustad Kale Khan was the founder of Kirana Gharana. His son Ustad Abdul Karim Khan was also a great musician and “Khayal” singer of India and he has done great work for Indian classical music with Utsad Rahamat Khan of Gwalior Gharana. Great classical singer Pandit Bhim Sen Joshi took his basic music education from Ustad Abdul Karim Khan for 6 years in Kairana.
Monogram of HMV (Dog listening the gramophone) is also given by Kairana Musical Gharana. This was actually a painting created in 1899 by Francis Barraud when pet dog (Nipper) of Ustad Kale Khan used to listen the gramophone for hours.
During Ancient period, Kairana or ” Karna Nagri” was the capital of Danveer Raja Karna’s Anga Pradesh in Mahabharata. Some believers believe that Kairana name made from “Kai and Rana ” means place of Rana Chauhan Gurjars. Rana Kalsa Raj Chauhan came with two brothers Rana Dev Raj Chauhan and Rana Deep Raj Chauhan from Ajmer, Rajasthan to village Panjeet near Kairana and founded the city Kairana. Descedent of Rana Kalsa Raj Chauhan called Kalshyan Gurjars.There are 84 villages of Kalshyan Chauhan Gautra of Gurjars near Kairana.
During Medieval period, Mughal Emperor Jahangir visited this place and has given a vibrant description in his autobiography, Tuzuk-e-jahangiri. The Emperor says On, Sunday, the 16th, I marched from Delhi, and on Friday the 21st, halted in the pargana of Kairana, This pargana is the native place of Muqarrab Khan. Its climate is equable and its soil good. . Muqarrab had made buildings and gardens there. As I had ‘often heard praise of his garden, I wished much to see it. On Saturday, the 22nd, I and my ladies were much pleased in going round it Truly, it is a very fine and enjoyable garden. Within a masonry (pukhta, pucca) wall, flower-beds have been laid out to the extent of 140 bighas. In the middle of the garden he has constructed a pond, in length 220 yards, and in breadth 200 yards. In the middle of the pond is a miih-tiib terrace (for use in moonlight) 22 yards square.There is no kind of tree belonging to a warm or cold climate that is not to be found in it. Of fruit-bearing trees belonging to Persia I saw green pistachio-trees, and cypresses of graceful form, such as I have never seen before. I ordered the cypresses to be counted, and they came to 300. All round the pond suitable buildings have been begun and are in progress.